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Dyeing of Polyester Fabric with Disperse Dyes


Introduction:

Dyes are coloured, unsaturated organic chemical compounds capable of providing colour to a substrate (a textile), i.e. colouring or dyeing it.

The term  disperse dye  have been applied towards the organic colouring substances which are no cost from ionizing groups, are of low water solubility and are appropriate for dyeing hydrophobic fibres. Disperse dyes have substantivity for 1 or a lot more hydrophobic fibres e.g. cellulose acetate, nylon, polyester, acrylic and also other synthetic fibres.

The unfavorable charge around the surface of hydrophobic fibres like polyester can not be lowered by any suggests, so non-ionic dyes like disperse dyes are utilised that are not influenced by that surface charge.

History of Disperse dyes:

In 1922, Green and Saunders produced one particular kind of coloured azo compound, in which a solubilizing group (for example- methyl sulphate, -CH2-SO3H) is attached to amino group. In dye bath, they are slowly hydrolyzed and generate azo compound and formaldehyde bi sulphate. This free azo compound was capable of dyeing cellulose acetate fibres. This dye was named ionamine . But this ion amine didn't give satisfactory result in dyeing.

Later in 1924, Baddiley and Ellis developed sulpho ricinoleic acid (SRA) for dyeing acetate fibres. This SRA was made use of as dispersing agent. Later it was seen that SRA was capable of dyeing Nylon, polyester, acrylic etc. In 1953 this dye was named as ?°Disperse Dye.


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